Polyamide Resin LEONA™

What is LEONA™ ?

LEONA™ is a trademark of PA66 resin, manufactured and sold by Asahi Kasei.

LEONA™ PA66 (reinforced) resins is an engineering plastic with excellent heat resistance, strength and rigidity. The LEONA™ family includes a wide range of grades with reinforced technology and alloy technology, and provides the optimum grade according to customer needs or application.

Features of LEONA™

The features of LEONA™ among general-purpose engineering plastics are shown below.

Advantages

1. Excellent heat resistance
2. Excellent toughness, durability, electrical characteristics, etc., and excellent balance of characteristics
3. Excellent oil resistance

Disadvantages

1. It is necessary to consider the dimensional change during water absorption when designing.
2. Please be careful when using in contact with acidic substances.

Features of glass-fiber reinforced LEONA™ resin

Advantages

1. Excellent strength and rigidity
2. Excellent toughness, durability, electrical characteristics, etc., and excellent balance of characteristics
3. Improved water absorption and better dimensional stability

Disadvantages

1. Glass-fiber reinforced plastics have general drawbacks such as anisotropy, weld strength, and screw wear during molding

Production for LEONA™

LEONA™ is manufactured in an integrated manner from raw materials to products using proprietary technology.

LEONA™ Application cases

End plate

Component parts for battery module

Products

LEONA™

Grades

SN series; SN11B and etc.
GF reinforced, non-halogenated flame retardancy, V-0

Features

・Moldability
・Laser printability
・Strength
・Toughness
・Electrical characteristics (CTI)
・Heat resistance

Cylinder head cover

Privent oil splash from engine

Products

LEONA™

Grades

14G33
Excellent moldability/secondary workability and mechanical property

Features

40% lighter compared with aluminum

Engine mount bracket

Braket of the anti-vibration device attaching to the engine unit

Products

LEONA™

Grades

14G50

Features

・Heat resistance
・High strength / high stiffness
・Fatigue resistance

Chain guide shoe

Support shoe parts for automobile engine timing chains

Products

LEONA™

Grades

1442/1542
By optimally dispersing lubricant, excellent low friction and wear resistance together with mechanical properties and moldability of general PA66 resin.

Features

・Low friction, low wear
・High heat resistance
・standard and high molecular weight grade available

Timing chain case

Keep chain clean by preventing from water/dust.

Products

LEONA™

Grades

SV104
The special polymer design of LEONA™ SV series enhances the damping effect of vibration and sound compared to general PA66. Blending glass fiber can improve its strength and rigidity higher.

Features

・High attenuation performance
・High strength
・High heat resistance

Water / oil pump

Oil pumps for engines, brakes, etc.
Cooling pumps for batteries, and etc.

Products

LEONA™

Grades

BG230

Features

・Uses plant-derived materials
・Low water absorption
・Laser welding

Water pipe

Engine cooling water circulation pipe

Products

LEONA™

Grades

53G33
・Low water absorption, GF33% reinforced grade
・Low water absorption provides excellent hydrolysis resistance and calcium chloride resistance

Features

・Heat resistance
・Hydrolysis resistance
・Calcium chloride resistance
・Moldability (molding of bent pipe)

Door mirror base

Highly estetic and stiffer door mirror base to check sides and rear view.

Products

LEONA™

Grades

91G60, 90G33
Excellent balance of high stiffness, good appearance, weatherability, and easy moldability.

Features

・Good appearance
・Weatherability
・High stiffness
・Easy moldability

Rear view mirror bracket

Bracket holding the mirror to check the rear view

Products

LEONA™

Grades

SG104、SG105
High stiffness, good appearance, and easy moldability

Features

・Vibration reduction due to high stiffness
・Appearance as an interior part

Smart key housing

Key housing allows you to unlock and lock vehicle and turn the engine on and off while keeping it in your pocket or bag

Products

LEONA™

Grades

90G33
combines high rigidity, good appearance, weather resistance, and easy moldability.

Features

・Good appearance
・Weatherability
・Easy moldability

Magnet switch

A switch that opens and closes electrical contacts using an electromagnet

Products

LEONA™

Grades

・SN series, FG series: Glass fiber reinforced, UL94: V-0
・SN series: GF reinforced non-halogenated flame retardancy
・FG series: GF reinforced flame retardancy

Features

・Excellent laser printability
・Moldability
・Wear resistance
・Excellent electrical characteristics (CTI)
・Snap fit stability

Connector

For wiring electrical and electronic components

Products

LEONA™

Grades

SN series
FR series
FG series
・ SN series: GF reinforced non-halogenated flame retardancy
・ FR series: non reinforced flame retardancy
・ FG series: GF reinforced non flame retardancy

Features

・Laser printability
・Moldability
・Strength, toughness
・Electrical characteristics (CTI)
・Heat resistance

Motor end cap

Caps of various motors

Products

LEONA™

Grades

1300G
A grade with improved strength and stiffness by addition of glass fiber

Features

・Heat resistance
・Strength/toughness
・Electrical properties
・Moldability

Smartphone chassis

Smartphone internal chassis

Products

LEONA™

Grades

SG105
A grade that combines high stiffness, good appearance, and easy molding.

Features

・Good appearance
・High stiffness

Solar cell connector nut

Waterproof / dustproof nut for the moated part of the cable and connector

Products

LEONA™

Grades

FR370
Non-halogenated flame retardancy V-0

Features

・Flame retardancy
・Easy molidability

Tank for warm water toilet seat

Warm water tank for warm water toilet seat

Products

LEONA™

Grades

1300G
A grade with increased strength and stiffness by adding glass fiber

Features

・Vibration welding
・Creep resistance

Water meter case

Meter case to measuring the amount of drinking water used

Products

LEONA™

Grades

90W50 T33G0
It has fatigue resistance and excellent surface smoothness. Also supports drinking water certification standards

Features

・Fatigue resistance
・Good appearance,
・Drinking water certification

Crescent

It acts as a lock to be attached to windows and sashes with metal fittings for fittings.

Products

LEONA™

Grades

90G50 . 91G55
90G50 : A grade characterized by high stiffness, good appearance, and excellent moldability
91G55 : A grade characterized by excellent appearance, and moldability and low warpage

Features

・Good appearance/high designability
・Realized warm touch/texture and functionality with the use of plastic rather than metal.
・Elimination of such problems as shrinkage or warpage by the use of AGI molding

Solenoid valve

Controls the opening and closing of the flow in a pipe that allows fluid and gas to pass through by air pressure, pneumatic pressure, water pressure, etc.

Products

LEONA™

Grades

SH10E
A grade providing high rigidity as well as UL94:V-0 (1.5 mm)

Features

・High stiffness and flame retardancy V-0
・Improved deformation/fracture resistance at bolt tightening
・No annealing required

Gear box / Gear reducer

A speed changer that decelerates the speed obtained by the motor to generate the necessary force

Products

LEONA™

Grades

・Under development(Filler reinforcement)
・Well balanced friction& wear resistance together with High fatigue resistance performance of PA66

Features

・Friction& wear resistance
・High modulus
・Good fatigue resistance

End plate

Component parts for battery module

Products

LEONA™

Grades

SN series; SN11B and etc.
GF reinforced, non-halogenated flame retardancy, V-0

Features

・Moldability
・Laser printability
・Strength
・Toughness
・Electrical characteristics (CTI)
・Heat resistance

Cylinder head cover

Privent oil splash from engine

Products

LEONA™

Grades

14G33
Excellent moldability/secondary workability and mechanical property

Features

40% lighter compared with aluminum

Engine mount bracket

Braket of the anti-vibration device attaching to the engine unit

Products

LEONA™

Grades

14G50

Features

・Heat resistance
・High strength / high stiffness
・Fatigue resistance

Chain guide shoe

Support shoe parts for automobile engine timing chains

Products

LEONA™

Grades

1442/1542
By optimally dispersing lubricant, excellent low friction and wear resistance together with mechanical properties and moldability of general PA66 resin.

Features

・Low friction, low wear
・High heat resistance
・standard and high molecular weight grade available

Timing chain case

Keep chain clean by preventing from water/dust.

Products

LEONA™

Grades

SV104
The special polymer design of LEONA™ SV series enhances the damping effect of vibration and sound compared to general PA66. Blending glass fiber can improve its strength and rigidity higher.

Features

・High attenuation performance
・High strength
・High heat resistance

Water / oil pump

Oil pumps for engines, brakes, etc.
Cooling pumps for batteries, and etc.

Products

LEONA™

Grades

BG230

Features

・Uses plant-derived materials
・Low water absorption
・Laser welding

Water pipe

Engine cooling water circulation pipe

Products

LEONA™

Grades

53G33
・Low water absorption, GF33% reinforced grade
・Low water absorption provides excellent hydrolysis resistance and calcium chloride resistance

Features

・Heat resistance
・Hydrolysis resistance
・Calcium chloride resistance
・Moldability (molding of bent pipe)

Door mirror base

Highly estetic and stiffer door mirror base to check sides and rear view.

Products

LEONA™

Grades

91G60, 90G33
Excellent balance of high stiffness, good appearance, weatherability, and easy moldability.

Features

・Good appearance
・Weatherability
・High stiffness
・Easy moldability

Rear view mirror bracket

Bracket holding the mirror to check the rear view

Products

LEONA™

Grades

SG104、SG105
High stiffness, good appearance, and easy moldability

Features

・Vibration reduction due to high stiffness
・Appearance as an interior part

Smart key housing

Key housing allows you to unlock and lock vehicle and turn the engine on and off while keeping it in your pocket or bag

Products

LEONA™

Grades

90G33
combines high rigidity, good appearance, weather resistance, and easy moldability.

Features

・Good appearance
・Weatherability
・Easy moldability

Magnet switch

A switch that opens and closes electrical contacts using an electromagnet

Products

LEONA™

Grades

・SN series, FG series: Glass fiber reinforced, UL94: V-0
・SN series: GF reinforced non-halogenated flame retardancy
・FG series: GF reinforced flame retardancy

Features

・Excellent laser printability
・Moldability
・Wear resistance
・Excellent electrical characteristics (CTI)
・Snap fit stability

Connector

For wiring electrical and electronic components

Products

LEONA™

Grades

SN series
FR series
FG series
・ SN series: GF reinforced non-halogenated flame retardancy
・ FR series: non reinforced flame retardancy
・ FG series: GF reinforced non flame retardancy

Features

・Laser printability
・Moldability
・Strength, toughness
・Electrical characteristics (CTI)
・Heat resistance

Motor end cap

Caps of various motors

Products

LEONA™

Grades

1300G
A grade with improved strength and stiffness by addition of glass fiber

Features

・Heat resistance
・Strength/toughness
・Electrical properties
・Moldability

Smartphone chassis

Smartphone internal chassis

Products

LEONA™

Grades

SG105
A grade that combines high stiffness, good appearance, and easy molding.

Features

・Good appearance
・High stiffness

Solar cell connector nut

Waterproof / dustproof nut for the moated part of the cable and connector

Products

LEONA™

Grades

FR370
Non-halogenated flame retardancy V-0

Features

・Flame retardancy
・Easy molidability

Tank for warm water toilet seat

Warm water tank for warm water toilet seat

Products

LEONA™

Grades

1300G
A grade with increased strength and stiffness by adding glass fiber

Features

・Vibration welding
・Creep resistance

Water meter case

Meter case to measuring the amount of drinking water used

Products

LEONA™

Grades

90W50 T33G0
It has fatigue resistance and excellent surface smoothness. Also supports drinking water certification standards

Features

・Fatigue resistance
・Good appearance,
・Drinking water certification

Crescent

It acts as a lock to be attached to windows and sashes with metal fittings for fittings.

Products

LEONA™

Grades

90G50 . 91G55
90G50 : A grade characterized by high stiffness, good appearance, and excellent moldability
91G55 : A grade characterized by excellent appearance, and moldability and low warpage

Features

・Good appearance/high designability
・Realized warm touch/texture and functionality with the use of plastic rather than metal.
・Elimination of such problems as shrinkage or warpage by the use of AGI molding

Solenoid valve

Controls the opening and closing of the flow in a pipe that allows fluid and gas to pass through by air pressure, pneumatic pressure, water pressure, etc.

Products

LEONA™

Grades

SH10E
A grade providing high rigidity as well as UL94:V-0 (1.5 mm)

Features

・High stiffness and flame retardancy V-0
・Improved deformation/fracture resistance at bolt tightening
・No annealing required

Gear box / Gear reducer

A speed changer that decelerates the speed obtained by the motor to generate the necessary force

Products

LEONA™

Grades

・Under development(Filler reinforcement)
・Well balanced friction& wear resistance together with High fatigue resistance performance of PA66

Features

・Friction& wear resistance
・High modulus
・Good fatigue resistance

Grade List / Search

General Heat stabilized Flame retardant Friction modified Excellent surface and enhanced strength High stiffiness after absorption of water Excellent surface and enhanced stiffness Hydrosis resistance
Non reinforced 1300S 1402S FR200
FR370
FR650
1442
GF reinforced 13G15
1300G
13G30
13G43
13G50
14G15
14G30
1402G
14G33
14G35
14G43
14G50
FG170
FG172
FG171
FG173
FH772
SH10E
SN10B
SN103
90G33
90G50
90G55
90G60
SG104
SG105
SG106
93G33
54G33
54G43
BG230
53G33
Special composites CR301
CR302
1330G
CR103
MR001
91G55
91G60
Impact modified TR161
TR382
High molecular 1500
1700S
9400S
1502(S)
1702
1542

Grade Search

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Product Data / Tips for Use

Important precautions for LEONA™

These data are based on the documents, information and data now available and may be changed when new knowledge or information is acquired. For the most current information, call Asahi Kasei Corporation at +81-44-271-2417 or by facsimile at +81-44-271-2166.

Safe Handling

The following is an essential guideline to the safe handling of Leona, as supplied. Always follow this guideline when handling Leona. Please read the relevant material safety data sheet (available from Asahi Kasei Corporation) thoroughly before use. Various additives etc. used in combination with Leona have their own safe use profile and must be investigated separately.

Health and safety
Avoid contact with skin and eyes when gases are generated in the drying and melting of the resin. Do not breathe the above gases. Do not touch hot resin . Local ventilation and wearing of chemical resistant gloves, chemical safety goggles, etc. are necessary when the resin is dried and melted. In case of emergency, call one of the following:

  • US: +1-800-424-9300 (Chemtrec)
  • EU: +32-(0)-1458-4545 (BIG v.z.w.)
  • Japan: +81-44-271-2417 (Asahi Kasei)

Combustibility
Warning: Leona is flammable . Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame when handling or storing Leona. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water or foam extinguishants as extinguishing media.

Disposal
Burn in a properly equipped incinerator or landfill in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations (contact local or state environmental agency for specific rules). During incineration, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated. Do not dump into sewers, onto the ground, or into any body of water .

Storing
To prevent moisture absorption, do not break the bag seal until just before use. Avoid bag breakage and keep product away from water. Do not return any spilled pellets to the bag.

Molding
Always process Leona under the recommended temperature range. Lower temperatures may lead to local degradation in properties due to nonuniform plasticization, while higher temperatures tend to cause silver streaking, other appearance problems, and resin decomposition. As the optimum temperature range varies among grades, read the guideline for each grade (available from Asahi Kasei). Ensure adequate local or general ventilation throughout molding operation. Detention of Leona in a non-operating, heated cylinder may cause resin decomposition. Before any extended suspension of molding operation, purge and charge the cylinder with non-colored polyethylene or a purging material designed for polyamide resins. Promptly remove and discard any spilled pellets from the work area to prevent slips and falls.

Proscribed Applications

  • Do not use Leona for food packaging applications.
  • Do not use Leona for medical devices designed or intended for intracorporeal implantation or contact, whether direct or indirect, with bodily fluids.

For specifics, refer to our division. Asahi Kasei Corporation encourages its customers to review their applications of its products from the standpoint of human health and environmental quality. To help ensure that Asahi Kasei Corporation products are not used in ways for which they are not intended or tested, Asahi Kasei Corporation representatives are willing to assist in dealing with ecological and product safety considerations.

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY AND LIABILITY
NOTICE:
Although the information and recommendations set forth herein are presented in good faith and believed to be correct, Asahi Kasei Corporation expressly disclaims any and all representations and warranties as to the completeness and accuracy thereof.

Information is supplied upon the EXPRESS CONDITION THAT THE PERSONS RECEIVING SAME WILL MAKE THEIR OWN DETERMINATION AS TO ITS SUITABILITY FOR THEIR PURPOSES PRIOR TO USE.

Asahi Kasei Corporation warrants only that this product will perform according to the technical specifications provided in the MSDS and other materials provided by it. NO OTHER REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WHETHER ORAL OR ARISING BY USAGE OF TRADE OR COURSE OF DEALING, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTIES OF FITNESS OR MERCHANTABILITY , shall be given any legal effect by this product or these materials.

This product has not been designed, tested, or intended for any use other than that for which it has been contracted for sale. This product is not warranted against injuries or damages of any kind caused by uses for which this product was not designed, tested, or intended.

Nothing contained herein is to be construed as a recommendation to use any product process, equipment or formulation in conflict with any patent, and Asahi Kasei Corporation makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, that the use thereof will not infringe any patent.

IN NO EVENT SHALL ASAHI KASEI CORPORATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY ANTICIPATED OR LOST PROFITS INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, COSTS TIME CHARGES OR OTHER LOSSES WHETHER BASED ON BREACH OF CONTRACT TORTIOUS CONDUCT, OR ANY OTHER THEORY, INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH THE PURCHASE OR USE OF THIS PRODUCT.

ASAHI KASEI CORPORATION DOES NOT AUTHORIZE ANYONE TO ASSUME FOR IT ANY LIABILITY OR TO MAKE ON ITS BEHALF ANY ADDITIONAL WARRANTIES IN CONNECTION WITH THESE MATERIALS.

Q&A

QWhat is the relationship between molding shrinkage and water absorption dimensional change of Leona?

A The molding shrinkage of Leona varies between grades with and without fiberglass and inorganic fillers. Molding shrinkage rates are lower for materials containing glass fibers or inorganic fillers than for materials that are not generally included with fillers. Leona is water-absorbing (moisture-absorbing) and has larger dimensions due to water absorption (moisture absorption).

QWhat is the relationship between GF orientation and product design precautions?

A Glass fiber reinforced materials demonstrate glass fiber aligned in the direction of flow during molding. Due to the orientation of glass fibers in flow and crossflow directions, the molding shrinkage rate and strength are different. Care must be taken in designing products.

QWhat is actions for anti-warping?

A The warpage is generated by the size of the molding shrinkage rate of plastic materials and anisotropy (difference between the machine dirrection and the transverse dirrection). Generally, crystalline resins have a larger molding shrinkage rate and tend to cause warping, and glass fiber-reinforced resins tend to cause warping due to the degree of glass fibers orientation which occur at different degree in flow direction vs perpendicular to flow direction. Therefore, measures are taken to reduce the anisotropy of the molding shrinkage rate, by reducing the wall thickness change and also by improving the gate balance, etc., and also by increasing the molding temperature and the cooling time from the viewpoint of molding conditions. In terms of material, among the inorganic filler reinforcement types, the inorganic filler combination type with less anisotropy , spherical and plate-like morphologies is effective in preventing warpage.

QWhat is annealing and humidity control?

A Annealing refers to a heat treatment that is performed to stabilize dimensions or remove distortion after molding. Moisture control is a process for stabilize dimensions of hygroscopic material by forcibly moisture absorbed under a humidity atmosphere to and the like.

QHow to remove the mold deposit?

A Mold deposits (mold contaminants) are mainly composed of additives, monomers, oligomers, etc. contained in resins. In order to remove these mold deposit, it is common practice to wash them with a solvent that dissolves them well. Asahi Kasei's MD BusterTM and Buster MildTM are effective.

QWhat is the rework material and the condition used?

A Rework materials (recycled materials) are materials that are used by crushing sprue, runners, and defective products generated in the process. Generally, the crushed product is used as it is, or the crushed product is converted to pellet by extrusion. When rework materials are used, precautions such as the storage condition before and after rework, the number of rework times, the ratio of rework materials used (how much is mixed), and contamination with foreign matter are required.

QWhat is the effect of discoloration during drying on physical properties?

A The color may change regardless of the material depending on the drying conditions (hot air or vacuum drying, temperature, and time). Generally, it is better to use the recommended temperature and within the recommended time, but even if it is at the recommended temperature, it may discolor if it dries for a long time. Discoloration does not affect the physical characteristics, but if it dries at a temperature higher than the recommended temperature for a long time the color could change drastically.

QHow is the relationship between mold shrinkage rate and molding temperature?

A The higher the mold temperature, the greater the molding shrinkage rate in general. Molding shrinkage of polyamide resin (Leona) and POM (Tenac) of crystalline resin varies relatively greatly with mold temperature. The mold shrinkage ratio of mPPE (Xylon) of the amorphous resin changes relatively small depending on the mold temperature.

QHow is the relationship between molding conditions and crystallization?

A The crystallized state of the product molded at the recommended mold temperature where the crystalline resin is sufficiently melted above the melting point is recommended. If the mold temperature is extremely low, crystallization may not be sufficient and the original properties of the resin may not be obtained.

QWhat is the maximum thickness of the product and the minimum thickness?

A In order to avoid stress concentration, sink marks on the product and avoid molding troubles, it is recommended to design product with as uniform wall thickness as possible. Nominal wall thickness recommended for injection molding part is between 1-3mm.

QIs pre-drying necessary?

A Pre-drying prior to molding can prevent resin hydrolysis and defects on the surface of molded products (such as silver streaks) mainly by removing moisture. Therefore, it is necessary to perform preliminary drying for stable molding.

QWhat is the shape of GF?

A GF is an abbreviation for Glass Fiber. The shape is 5-15 μm in diameter. The length of GF in the pellet glassfiber-reinforced plastic varies depending on the conditions at which it is mixed into the plastic, and is generally a few millimeters.

QHow to read the grade numbers?

A Please contact our sales staff as it differs for each resin (Tenac, Leona, Xylon).

QWhat are halogenated flame retardants and non-halogenated flame retardants?

A Flame retardants that contain chlorine (Cl) and bromine (Br) in their structures are called halogenated flame retardants, and these are organic and inorganic flame retardants. Non-halogennated flame retardant is that does not contain chlorine or bromine.

QWhat is the masterbatch?

A For example, a colored masterbatch is made by blending a pigment into a resin at a high concentration, and it is possible to color molding parts by blending it into a natural colored resin at the time of molding. Thus, the masterbatch is a resin pellet that contains a high concentration of a specific additive in the resin.

QWhat is the difference between crystalline and amorphous resins?

A Crystalline resins are resins that exhibit an orderly arrangement of macromolecules. Amorphous resins do not have an order or specific arrangement of molecules. In crystalline resins, all of the macromolecules do not become crystalline, and the crystalline state and the amorphous state are mixed together. Specifically, crystalline resins include polyamide, polyacetal, and etc., and amorphous resins include polyphenylene ether, polycarbonate, and etc.. In general, crystalline resins are hard, rigid, and amorphous resins are characterized by excellent impact resistance and transparency.

QWhat is the lublicity grade?

A This grade is made by blending lubricants, etc. to improve sliding characteristics and friction and wear resistance characteristics.

QWhat kind of inorganic fillers are there?

A There are various fillers according to chemical composition, such as oxides such as silica, hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, carbonates such as calcium carbonate, sulfates such as barium sulfate, and silicates such as talc, mica, and warastonite. There are also needle-like fillers like wollastonite in shape, plate-like fillers like talc and mica, and spherical and granular fillers like calcium carbonate.

QWhat is UL?

A UL is an American agencies and standards set up to address product safety testing to prevent electricity and fire incidents. Formally known as Underwriters Laboratories Inc, and Standards, there are certifications for synthetic resin materials, and the following five are related to synthetic resins.

1. UL-94: Combustion test for plastic materials: Depending on the thickness of the test piece, there is 94HB, 94V-2, 94V-1, 94V-0, and generally the thinner the wall thickness, the more easily it burns.

2. UL-746A: The following two are used in the specification for short-term physical property assessment of plastic materials: In the case of a thermoplastic resin, it is applied in a use environment in which a dynamic external force is applied, and is determined by a tensile impact value (Izod value in the case of a thermosetting resin).The labeling method is applied in a use environment in which only "Mech,with imp static" external force is applied, and in the case of a thermoplastic resin, it is determined by a tensile strength (bending strength in the case of a thermosetting resin), and the labeling method is "Mech,w/o imp"

3. UL-746B: The following are used in the specification for long-term physical property assessment of plastic materials: Rated temperature Indicates a constant temperature at which the initial physical properties (e.g., electrical and mechanical properties) drop to 50% when exposed to air at a constant temperature for 0.1 million hours. Indicates RTIs (Relative Thermal Index) at °C.

4. UL-746C: UL-ranked by the rating level in the standard for evaluating the electrical use of plastic materials. (PCL:Performance Level Categories) uses the following five.
(1) Hot-wire ignitability: The degree to which the material is heated and ignited is evaluated in the number of seconds of ignition, and the indication is in five levels from 0 to 5 in the HWI (Hot-Wire Ignition) PCL-rank. The smaller the number, the better.
(2) Large current arc ignitability: The degree to which the material ignites by arc discharge is evaluated by arc number, and the indication of HAI (High-Ampare Arc Resistance) PCL rank is better as the number is smaller in 5 stages from 0 to 4.
(3) Arc Resistance: The degree to which a conductive path is formed, attributed to arcs according to ASTM D495, is evaluated in seconds, the indicia are shown as D495, and the PCL rank is 8 steps from 0 to 7, and the smaller the number, the better.
(4) High-voltage tracking: Repeated high-voltage, low-current arcing on the surface of the material, evaluating the degree to which the material can cause a conductive path, evaluating at the tracking speed (millimeters/minute), labeling is HVTR(High Voltage Arc Tracking Rate.
(5) Tracking Resistance: Evaluate the degree of voltage that causes the material to create a permanent carbonized conductivity path, the indication is CTI (Comparative Tracking Index), the PCL-rank is six steps from 0 to 5, the smaller the number, the better.

5. UL-746D: Standards for plastic-material assemblies

QWhat is the difference between ductile fracture and brittle fracture?

A In the stress-strain curves of nylon resin (standard non-reinforced type and GF reinforced type), the standard non-reinforced type shows a distinct yield point, after which a large elongation occurs and eventually breaks. The case where there is elongation in the material is called ductile fracture, while the case where there is no clear yield point in the stress-strain curve, like the GF reinforced type, and fracture without elongation is called brittle fracture.

QWhat is the difference of weather and light resistant?

A Weather resistance indicates resistance to weather conditions (environmental gases such as sunlight, rain, air temperature, humidity, NOX, SOX, etc., dust, etc.), and light resistance indicates resistance to only light (sunlight, fluorescent lamps, etc.).